The national census next April will be the 23rd time this once-a-decade count has been conducted since 1790.
The 3rd census in 1810 profiled a nation on the verge of war. There were just over 7 million residents of the 17 states. The list of 10 biggest cities included Charleston, S.C., New Orleans, Northern Liberties township in Pa., and Salem, Mass. In the decade to follow, British soldiers burned the White House and other buildings in Washington, Francis Scott Key wrote “The Star Spangled Banner,” and the 13 stars and stripes became the official U.S. flag.
At the decade's end, the steamship Savannah crossed the Atlantic in 29 days. Profile America is a public service of the U.S. Census Bureau, now preparing for the 2010 Census.